PR ON THE GO November 8, 2023

The AI Revolution in Music: Shaping the Streaming Age

By Cassie Ellis

The music industry is undergoing a profound transformation with the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) into its creative and promotional processes. AI is changing the music landscape by creating new songs and making existing ones sound like they were recorded by specific artists or bands. An example is the AI-generated Beatles song "Now and Then," written and sung by John Lennon before his passing in 1980. The song was initially attempted by the remaining Beatles in the mid-1990s but faced quality issues. In 2023, AI software by Peter Jackson completed and released the song, featuring AI-extracted vocals from John Lennon. This article explores AI's impact on the music industry, with a focus on streaming services, playlist curation, and its influence on artists and listeners.

AI-Powered Playlist Curation

Streaming platforms have revolutionized the way we consume music, offering vast libraries of songs at our fingertips. AI plays a pivotal role in curating personalized playlists for users. Algorithms analyze listening habits, preferences, and even contextual data to generate playlists that cater to individual tastes. This level of personalization has elevated the streaming experience, making it more engaging for listeners.

Traditionally, real-life playlist curators played a central role in crafting the musical journey for streaming platform users. However, the landscape has evolved with the growing influence of artificial intelligence (AI) in playlist curation. Platforms like Spotify and Apple Music have harnessed the power of AI to offer increasingly personalized music experiences to their subscribers. AI-driven algorithms now analyze vast amounts of user data, including listening history and preferences, to create bespoke playlists such as "Discover Weekly" and "Release Radar" on Spotify. Similarly, Apple Music's "For You" section relies on AI to provide tailored music recommendations. While human curators may still have a role in certain aspects of playlist creation, the integration of AI has become a dominant force in delivering highly personalized and engaging content to music enthusiasts.

AI's ascendance in playlist curation has fundamentally transformed the process. Unlike traditional human curators, AI can process enormous volumes of data swiftly and with precision. It continuously tracks a user's listening habits, factors in their preferred genres, artists, and even contextual information like the time of day and mood. AI algorithms can then swiftly adapt and refresh playlists to ensure they remain up-to-date and align with a listener's evolving tastes. This dynamic and data-driven approach allows streaming platforms to offer a highly personalized listening experience, making music discovery more efficient and tailored to individual preferences.

Marketing professional Sammie Ellard-King, founder of Up The Gains, who enjoys using Spotify's AI DJ tool, shares his perspective, saying, “Spotify's AI DJ tool creates personalized playlists based on my music taste, which is the cherry on top. This function surprises and delights me by letting me hear familiar and new songs in a new way, enhancing my music enjoyment.”

AI is not limited by the constraints of time or working hours. While human curators might have limitations in terms of the number of hours they can dedicate to playlist curation, AI operates round the clock, ensuring that users have fresh content at all times. It also enables platforms to offer a wider variety of playlists, each catering to specific moods, activities, or genres. This diversity provides users with an extensive array of choices, making the listening experience even more engaging and enjoyable. With AI at the helm, playlist curation has evolved from a manual and somewhat limited process to an agile, data-driven, and continuously adaptive system that serves as a powerful tool for introducing users to new music that aligns with their unique tastes and preferences.

AI's Impact on Artists

AI is not only shaping the way music is consumed but also how it's created. There are AI-powered tools and platforms that assist artists in generating music. From chord progression suggestions to fully composed tracks, AI algorithms are becoming co-creators in the music-making process.

The music industry is currently experiencing a surge in AI-driven music startups that are transforming music composition, production, and promotion. These startups leverage AI to automate tasks such as mastering tracks, writing lyrics, and creating videos. Notable startups in this space include, AudioShake, Authentic Artists, CoSo by Splice, Infinite Album, and Kaiber.

While debates about the impact of AI on music authenticity persist, many artists view AI as a valuable creative partner that enhances their capabilities. AI is used for generating melodies, crafting new songs, and replicating specific artist styles, promising to revolutionize music creation and inspire fresh innovations in the industry. While some argue that AI might diminish the authenticity of music creation, many artists view it as a valuable creative partner, enhancing their capabilities.

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Copyright and AI-Generated Music

The rise of AI in music creation has also raised concerns about copyright and ownership. Who owns the rights to music created or assisted by AI? This complex issue is currently being debated within the industry and legal circles. The boundaries between human creativity and AI assistance are still being defined, making it a critical topic for artists, labels, and streaming platforms.

One of the primary challenges in the context of AI-generated music is determining ownership. In traditional music creation, copyright is clear-cut: the composers, lyricists, and performers typically hold rights to their work. However, AI introduces a new layer of complexity. Who should be credited as the creator when AI is involved in composing, producing, or assisting in the music-making process?

In some cases, AI-generated music is entirely autonomous, with AI systems composing and producing tracks without direct human intervention. In such instances, it becomes a complex issue to attribute authorship or ownership. While the AI system may execute the creative process, the question arises whether it can truly be considered a "creator" in the legal and artistic sense. YouTube and Spotify have taken steps to combat deceptive content. YouTube bans manipulated content, while Spotify prohibits deceptive impersonation. Spotify has also introduced penalties for distributors involved in fraudulent activities, encouraging them to monitor and remove suspicious content. Emerging startups like Moises.AI, which develop tools to detect synthetic voices, are gaining importance in this context. This trend is crucial for businesses, particularly in the music industry, as it can impact their intellectual property rights and content distribution strategies.

More commonly, artists collaborate with AI to enhance their creative process. The AI algorithms may generate musical suggestions, help in chord progressions, or provide instrumental accompaniments. In these scenarios, the human artist maintains a significant role in shaping the music. Nonetheless, the extent of AI's influence in the creative process varies, raising questions about the allocation of rights.

AI in A&R and Promotion

AI is not limited to the creative process; it's also a valuable asset in artist and repertoire (A&R) and promotional activities. Music labels and PR agencies are using AI to analyze data and trends, helping them identify emerging artists and predict hit songs. AI-driven tools can gauge an artist's potential success by examining social media engagement, streaming data, and even factors like TikTok trends.

In the context of this transformative use of AI in A&R and promotion, Patrick McCarthy, Director of Music Supply Chain, North America, at A to Z Media, emphasizes, "Since the early days of streaming, platforms have used machine learning to drive engagement. Earlier this year, Spotify announced a new AI DJ that aims to provide an even more hyper-personalized curation of music. The ability for platforms to more deeply understand the unique tastes of users and present familiar recommendations while surfacing lesser-known ones is a great tool.

The recent Beatles song "Now and Then" is a great example of the use of AI to assist artists. John Lennon's original demo was of lower quality and for years they were unable to separate his vocals from the piano. With cutting-edge AI technology, they were finally able to achieve this and the finished track is quite remarkable. This is a great example of the positive and effective use of AI." This quote highlights the evolving landscape of AI-driven A&R and promotion, underscoring how AI's ability to personalize and recommend music aligns with emerging trends in the music industry.

Warner Music Group has utilized AI to discover emerging talents. The label acquired the tool Sodatone which analyzes streaming and social data to identify artists with growth potential. It has already played a significant role in discovering new talents.

AI in Live Music Experiences

One of the most thrilling and innovative frontiers is the role of artificial intelligence (AI) might be in enhancing live music experiences. AI-powered technologies are revolutionizing the way concerts and live performances are designed and executed, offering exciting new possibilities for both artists and audiences.

AI algorithms have become a game-changer in the realm of live music by optimizing setlists. These algorithms analyze a wealth of data, including past performances, local preferences, and demographic information. By considering factors such as the region, age group, and even the time of day, AI can generate the ideal setlist that resonates with the specific audience in attendance. This level of personalization ensures that concert-goers have a unique and memorable experience.

For example, an artist performing in New York City might have a significantly different setlist than one performing in Nashville. AI takes into account the musical tastes of each region and tailors the performance to create a strong connection between the artist and the audience. This results in a more engaging and immersive experience, fostering a sense of connection and resonance that transcends the music itself.

AI-Enhanced Visuals and Augmented Reality

In addition to setlist optimization, AI is reshaping the visual aspect of live music performances. Artists are increasingly incorporating AI-generated visuals and augmented reality (AR) elements into their shows, delivering a multi-sensory experience for concert-goers.

AI-generated visuals offer artists an opportunity to create stunning and dynamic stage designs that synchronize with the music. For instance, AI can analyze the tempo, rhythm, and mood of each song and generate real-time visuals that complement the performance. This synchronization results in an immersive visual experience that enhances the emotional impact of the music.

Augmented reality elements take audience engagement to the next level. Using AR, concert-goers can use their smartphones to interact with the live show in real time. Fans might access exclusive content, participate in interactive games related to the performance, or even view additional information about the artists. This interactivity transforms the passive act of attending a concert into an engaging and participatory event.

AI-driven stage effects are being used to create breathtaking and dynamic visuals that respond to the artist's movements and the music itself. These effects may include interactive lighting, holographic displays, and even AI-generated characters that interact with the performers. These innovations immerse the audience in a unique and enchanting world of sights and sounds.

The Future of AI in Music

As AI continues to evolve, it's expected to play an even more substantial role in music. We can anticipate enhanced AI-driven music creation tools, even more personalized playlists, and more accurate A&R predictions. While concerns about copyright and authenticity persist, AI is proving to be a valuable ally in the music industry's journey through the streaming age.

Navigating the Intersection of AI and Music

The integration of AI into the music industry is transforming the way music is created, distributed, and enjoyed. With AI-powered playlist curation, music creation tools, and data analysis, the music landscape is becoming increasingly personalized and efficient. As AI continues to shape the industry, the relationship between technology and creativity remains a topic of ongoing discussion and exploration.


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